Colombia is a vast country of South America, crossed by the Equator in the southern part, and has different types of climate, although in the plains it is hot all year round, and everywhere there are small variations in temperature throughout the year. The main differences are due to the altitude, which affects the temperature, and also to the distribution and the amount of rainfall. In fact, there are arid and rainy areas, grasslands and forests, plains where the heat is stifling and plateaus with a mild climate, pristine coastlines with a warm sea and snow-capped peaks in the Andes. In the tierras calientes, from sea level to about 1,000 meters (3,300 feet), it's hot all year round, while the tierras templadas at middle altitudes are pleasantly warm, and the tierras frías, above 2,000 meters (6,500 feet), are cool to cold.


The deserts

Colombia, arid areas

Guajira Peninsula

In the far north, the Guajira Peninsula (see the red circle at the top of the map) is the most arid part of Colombia; in fact, precipitation is below 300 mm (12 in) per year, and there is even a desert, called La Guajira Desert. In the north of the peninsula, the Parque Nacional Natural Macuira is a bit greener because there are some hills that capture a bit of the moisture brought by the trade winds. This offshoot of Colombia, which overlooks the Caribbean Sea, can be affected by hurricanes, in the period from June to November (though most likely between August and October), but this rarely happens because it is located at the southern end of their trajectory.
In Riohacha, capital city of the La Guajira Department, the climate is hot throughout the year: in July and August, lows are around 25 °C (77 °F) and highs around 35 °C (95 °F), while in the coolest months, from December to February, they are just a few degrees lower. Here are the average temperatures.
Riohacha - Average temperatures
Min (°C)222223242525252524242323
Max (°C)323233333434353533323232
Min (°F)727273757777777775757373
Max (°F)909091919393959591909090

Riohacha is located on the north coast, to the west of the peninsula, and although it does not rain a lot, it is not so dry, in fact the rains amount to 550 millimeters (22 inches) per year. However, the rains are quite scarce from December to April, then there is a first relatively rainy period in May and June, when 70 mm and 40 mm (2.8 and 1.6 in) of rain fall respectively, a second dry period from July to mid-August, and a second rainy period between September and mid-November; October is the wettest month with 150 mm (6 in) of rain. This rainfall pattern, with two dry and two rainy periods, is also found in other less arid areas; in fact, it is typical of sub-equatorial areas, where the sun passes directly overhead at noon twice a year. Here is the average precipitation in Riohacha.
Riohacha - Average precipitation

In Riohacha, the sun shines more often in the two driest periods, in winter and in summer. Here are the average sunshine hours per day.
Riohacha - Sunshine

The Caribbean Sea in Colombia is warm all year round, and therefore also in this part of the coast, as can be seen in the following table.
Riohacha - Sea temperature
Temp (°C)262626262727272828292827
Temp (°F)797979798181818282848281

Considering both the heat and the rains, in this northernmost area of Colombia the best time is from December to March.

Tatacoa Desert

In the south-western inland areas, between the two Andean mountain ranges and near the town of Villavieja, there is another arid zone, the Tatacoa Desert (see the small circle at the center of the map). It is an area occupied by canyons and rocky landscapes, where good visibility allows to see the shooting stars during the periods of meteor showers, but also the stars at the astronomical observatory and a collection of fossils of the area in the archaeological museum. The average altitude is about 400 meters (1,300 feet). The heat is intense throughout the year, as we can see from the temperature of the nearby town of San Alfonso.
San Alfonso - Average temperatures
Min (°C)232323232223232323232222
Max (°C)343434333435353636343233
Min (°F)737373737273737373737272
Max (°F)939393919395959797939091

During the day, temperatures can reach 40 °C (104 °F) all year round, while at night they can drop to around 15/17 °C (59/63 °F).
The rains are below 1,000 mm (40 in) per year, but they are not entirely absent: some showers can occur throughout the year, but mainly in March and April and from October to December, while the driest months are June, July and August.

The savanna

Colombia, climate of the savanna
The climate of the savanna is hot year-round, with a dry season and a rainy season. South of the Guajira Peninsula, along the coast of the Caribbean Sea, the climate is more humid, so the heat is tropical (muggy) rather than torrid (hot and dry). Also, the rains are more abundant.


In Barranquilla, highs range between 31 °C and 33 °C (88 and 91 °F) throughout the year, and lows between 23 °C and 25 °C (73 to 77 °F). Here are the average temperatures.
Barranquilla - Average temperatures
Min (°C)232424252525252524242424
Max (°C)313232333333333333323232
Min (°F)737575777777777775757575
Max (°F)889090919191919191909090

In Barranquilla, it almost never rains from mid-December to April, but then the rainy season, from May to mid-November, is more pronounced than in the Guajira Peninsula, with a peak in the last part (Semptember-October). The summer break is not so evident: in July, 65 mm (2.6 in) of rain fall anyway. Total annual rainfall is 815 mm (32 in). Here is the average precipitation.
Barranquilla - Average precipitation

In Barranquilla, the sun shines especially in the dry winter season.
Barranquilla - Sunshine


Continuing southwestward on the west coast, in Cartagena de Indias, at 10 degrees north latitude, it is hot all year round as well, as we can see in the following table.
Cartagena - Average temperatures
Min (°C)242425262626262626252525
Max (°C)313131313232323232313131
Min (°F)757577797979797979777777
Max (°F)888888889090909090888888

In Cartagena, 1,090 mm (43 in) of rain fall per year, of which more than 100 mm (4 in) from May to November, and with a maximum in October.
Cartagena - Average precipitation

In Cartagena, the sun shines more or less like in Barranquilla.
Cartagena - Sunshine

The best time to visit Barranquilla and Cartagena is from December to April.

Continuing on the coast south of Cartagena, the temperatures remain similar, but the rains are even more abundant: in Santiago de Tolú, located a short distance from the Archipelago of San Bernardo, they reach 1,340 mm (52.7 in) per year, and exceed 150 mm (6 in) from May to November. Further south, precipitation reaches 1,400 mm (55 in) per year in San Bernardo del Viento, 1,465 mm (57 in) in Cristo Rey, and 1,700 mm (67 in) in Arboletes, which is located west of Monterìa. Here the dry season is reduced to about 4 months, and the best period is from December to March.
Here is the average rainfall in Arboletes.
Arboletes - Average precipitation

Even the sun at this latitude shines less often; however, in the dry winter season there are 6/7 hours of sunshine a day.
Arboletes - Sunshine

In the inland areas located east of the coast, the climate is similar to that of this portion of the coast, with a greater risk of intense heat, around 37/40 °C (99/104 °F) on sunny days.

To the east of the Andes too (in the map, the area to the right), there is a large area that has a similar climate, hot throughout the year, with a dry and a wet season: this is the area of the so-called Llanos, plains and hills occupied by the savannah. Compared with the previous area, here the rainfall is more abundant, above 2,000 mm (79 in), but there is still a relatively dry season, from December to March in the north (see Arauca) and from mid-December to February in the center and south (see Las Gaviotas, San José del Guaviare). The dry period is also the hottest, with peaks above 35 °C (95 °F), when, however, air humidity is lower than in the rainy period.

San Andrés and Providencia

The small Caribbean islands of San Andrés and Providencia, located to the east of Nicaragua, are hot all year round, with highs around 29/31 °C (84/88 °F). Here are the average temperatures in San Andrés.
San Andrés - Average temperatures
Min (°C)252525262626262626252525
Max (°C)292930303131313131313030
Min (°F)777777797979797979777777
Max (°F)848486868888888888888686

These islands are very rainy: the total rainfall is 1,900 mm (75 in) per year; we put them in this section because here too there is a dry season, from mid-January to April, which therefore is the best, and a rainy season from May to mid-January.
Here is the average precipitation in San Andrés.
San Andrés - Average precipitation

On these islands, the sun shines more often in the dry period, from January to April, while in the rest of the year, despite the formation of clouds that can give rise to showers and thunderstorms, it shines on average for a few hours a day.
San Andrés - Sunshine

Like the Peninsula de la Guajira, these islands are located at the lower part of the hurricane zone.

The forest

Colombia, areas with an equatorial climate
There are two areas of Colombia in the west and south-east, which have an equatorial climate, hot and rainy throughout the year. The rains generally occur in the form of downpours or thunderstorms, preferably in the afternoon or in the evening.
In the southernmost part of the coast of the Caribbean Sea, north of the border with Panama (see Acandí, Capurganá, Turbo, Necoclí), more than 2,000 millimeters (80 inches) of rain fall per year. The only period when precipitation drops to less than 150 millimeters (6 inches) per month is from January to March, which therefore is the best period in this area. Here is the average rainfall in Acandí.
Acandí - Average precipitation

South of the border with Panama, the coastal area of the Pacific Ocean is even more rainy: rainfall reaches 5,350 mm (210 in) in Bahia Solano, and up to 6,900 mm (271 in) in Buenaventura, at almost 4 degrees north latitude.


East of the coast, on the slopes at the foot of the Western Cordillera of the Andes, we find Quibdó, which is the rainiest city in Colombia as well as one of the rainiest in the world. Here, annual rainfall reaches as high as 8,000 mm, ie 8 meters (or 26 feet)! Heavy downpours occur almost daily, and cloudiness forms in late morning and persists in the afternoon, however, if you want to venture into this region you can choose February and March when it rains for "only" 22 days per month, with "only" 520 millimeters (20.5 in) of rain per month... otherwise, if you're looking for strong emotions, you can choose August, when 840 mm (33 in) of rain fall, so it practically rains in a single month like it does in an average rainy city in an entire year. In fact, Quibdó is the rainiest city of a certain size in the world (in some mountainous areas of India, where it rains even more, there are only villages and small towns).
Here is the average precipitation.
Quibdo - Average precipitation

The temperatures in Quibdó are high throughout the year, and the air is constantly moist. Here are the average temperatures.
Quibdo - Average temperatures
Min (°C)232323232323232323232323
Max (°C)303030313132313131303030
Min (°F)737373737373737373737373
Max (°F)868686888890888888868686


Further south, in San Andrés de Tumaco, near the border with Ecuador, the temperatures are high in a similar way, even though during the day they are a bit lower because the city is right on the coast, as can be seen in the following table.
Tumaco - Average temperatures
Min (°C)232324242424232424242323
Max (°C)292930302929292929292929
Min (°F)737375757575737575757373
Max (°F)848486868484848484848484

In contrast, the rains are not as abundant as in Quibdó, especially from August to November, when the rainfall is lower than 150 millimeters (6 in) per month. Here is the average rainfall in Tumaco.
Tumaco - Average precipitation

On the Pacific coast, the sun does not shine very often, even in this southern part which is a little less rainy. Here are the average sunshine hours in Tumaco.
Tumaco - Sunshine

The area we are dealing with (that is, the one circled in the left on the map) is not the only part of the country with an equatorial climate. The south-eastern part of Colombia, that of the Amazon rainforest (in the map, the area circled in the right), has a similar climate. This is an area, however vast, sparsely populated and difficult to penetrate.


In the far south, in Leticia, in the area where the Amazon River marks for a few kilometers the border with Peru, it rains a lot throughout the year, with a slight decrease in July and August. Here is the average precipitation.
Leticia - Average precipitation

In fact, here we are, albeit slightly, south of the Equator, so the seasons are reversed, and June, July and August can be considered as winter months, and sometimes nights can be a bit cool from June to September. Here are the average temperatures.
Leticia - Average temperatures
Min (°C)232323232322212122222223
Max (°C)313131303029303131313131
Min (°F)737373737372707072727273
Max (°F)888888868684868888888888

The Andes

Colombia, climate of the Andes
In the west, Colombia is crossed from north to south by the Andes, which are divided into three mountain ranges, called Cordilleras: Western, Central and Eastern. To the three Cordilleras we must also add the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which is located in the north, apart from them, and it's home to the highest peak of Colombia, Pico Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus), 5,775 meters (18,947 feet) high. However, there are several peaks (often volcanic) exceeding 5,000 meters (16,500 ft). Considering that we are at the Equator, to find very low temperatures we must rise above 3,500 meters (11,500 ft), which is typically the limit beyond which neither trees nor towns are found.
Here are the average temperatures measured at 4,150 meters (13,600 feet) on the slopes of the Nevado del Ruiz, whose summit is at 5,321 meters (17,457 feet).
Nevado d. Ruiz - Average temperatures
Min (°C)111222111111
Max (°C)999989998888
Min (°F)343434363636343434343434
Max (°F)484848484648484846464646

Between 3,500 and 4,500 meters (11,500 and 15,000 ft), there are areas with a particular kind of vegetation, a tropical high mountain tundra with shrubs and cactuses, called páramos, while over 4,500 meters (15,000 ft) there are snow-covered areas (called nevados).
In the Andean zone, the rainfall is more or less abundant depending on slope exposure, while the temperature varies with altitude.

In the valleys between mountain ranges, the amount of rainfall is lower than in the two external sides, typically between 900 and 1,200 mm (35 and 47 in) per year. We have said that the western side, which overlooks the Pacific Ocean, is rain-soaked, but so is the eastern side, even though it doesn't reach the peaks of cities like Quibdó. For example, in Villavicencio, at 430 meters (1,400 feet) above sea level, almost 4,000 mm (157 in) of rain fall per year, and the only months when precipitation goes below 100 mm (4 in) are January (with 40 mm or 1.6 in) and February (with 90 mm or 3.5 in). Here, the best time is from mid-December to mid-March. Further south, in Florencia, the least rainy period, with rainfall between 100 and 150 mm (4 and 6 in) per month, is shorter, and it's limited to December and January.
In the interior area of the Andes, there are many cities located at high altitudes.


The capital, Bogotá, is located at 2,600 meters (8,500 ft), and has a cool, spring-like climate all year round, with maximum temperatures ranging from 18 to 20 °C (64 to 68 °F) and minimum temperatures from 6 to 9 °C (43 to 48 °F). From November to March, in the open country there may be slight frosts at night, while within the city, the night temperature is a few degrees higher because of the urban heat island effect. In the daytime, the temperature rarely exceeds 22 °C (72 °F), so it's rarely warm, but the equatorial sun's rays at this altitude are very strong, even though the sky is often cloudy. As a result, when the sun shines, in the sun it feels warm, but in the shade the air is cool. Also, since houses are not heated, with these temperatures inside buildings it is quite cold, so it's better to bring a fleece. However, the highest temperature ever measured is 30 °C (86 °F), recorded in April. Here are the average temperatures.
Bogotá - Average temperatures
Min (°C)678999887887
Max (°C)202020201919181919191920
Min (°F)434546484848464645464645
Max (°F)686868686666646666666668

The amount of rain that falls in the metropolitan area of Bogotá varies according to the area: in the city center it is around 800/1,000 mm (31/40 in) per year, in the south-western outskirts it drops to around 600 mm (23.5 in), while in the eastern suburbs, at the foot of the Cerros Orientales, the mountains reaching up to 3,500 meters (11,500 feet) and running along the eastern edge of the city, it reaches 1,100 mm (43 in).
The rainfall pattern is influenced by the two zenith passages of the sun (that is, when it shines directly overhead in the sky at mid-day), and therefore there are two maxima in April-May and October-November and two minima from December to February and from June to September. However, the minimum in the latter season is not very reliable, in fact, the rains decrease in quantity, but not in frequency (it rains often anyway). Here is the average precipitation at the airport.
Bogotá - Average precipitation

Moreover, from June to September the sun does not shine very often. Therefore, January and February are the best months to visit the Colombian capital, even though it rains about 7 times per month and there are just 5/6 hours of sunshine per day: it's still better than in the rest of the year. Here are the average daily sunshine hours.
Bogotá - Sunshine


A few kilometers west of Bogotá, near Mondoñedo, there is a small arid zone, called a bit emphatically "Sabrinsky Desert", where rainfall drops below 500 mm (20 in) per year. Rainfall drops below 500 mm (20 in) also to the north-east of the city, and about 100 km (60 mi) to the north-east, in the department of Boyacá, we find the "Candelaria Desert", an arid area at about 2,100/2,500 meters (6,900/8,200 feet) above sea level, where therefore the temperatures are a little higher than in the capital.


The city of Cali is located at a lower altitude, around 1,000 meters (3,300 feet). Here, the temperature is definitely higher than in Bogotá, and the climate is hot, but all in all it's usually bearable, at least more than at sea level. However, sometimes the temperature can reach 35 °C (95 °F) all year round. Here are the average temperatures.
Cali - Average temperatures
Min (°C)191919191919181919191919
Max (°C)303030302930303130292929
Min (°F)666666666666646666666666
Max (°F)868686868486868886848484

In Cali, both the the pattern and the amount of rainfall (which is about 1,000 mm or 40 inches), are similar to those of Bogotá, although there's more sun and the rains from June to August are less frequent, so you can go also in this season. In the western districts of the city, closer to the mountains, and especially in the south-west, closer to the Farallones de Cali, a massif of 4,000 meters (13,100 ft), the rains are more abundant, as you can see from the average precipitation recorded at the university.
Cali - Average precipitation

Here are the average sunshine hours in Cali.
Cali - Sunshine


Compared with Bogotá and Cali, Medellín is located at an intermediate altitude, 1,500 meters (5,000 feet), and as can be expected it has warm daytime temperatures, but without excesses, and cool nights: lows are around 17/18 °C (63/64 °F), while highs are around 27/29 °C (81/84 °F). Here are the average temperatures.
Medellín - Average temperatures
Min (°C)171818181817171717171717
Max (°C)282828282828282928272727
Min (°F)636464646463636363636363
Max (°F)828282828282828482818181

However, the rains in Medellín are more abundant, about 1,500 mm (60 in) per year, and there is no decrease from June to August, so the best time here is from December to February, since it is the only relatively dry period. Here is the average precipitation.
Medellín - Average precipitation

In Medellín, the sun shines more or less as in Cali: not too often, but more often than in Bogotá.
Medellín - Sunshine


Another city that lies at a high altitude is Popayán, about 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) above sea level, and therefore at an intermediate altitude between Bogotá and Medellin. This is really a city of eternal spring: highs are around 24/26 °C (75/79 °F) and lows around 12/14 °C (54/57 °F) all year round. Here are the average temperatures.
Popayán - Average temperatures
Min (°C)131414141413121213141414
Max (°C)252525252525252626252424
Min (°F)555757575755545455575757
Max (°F)777777777777777979777575

Here, however, the rains are more abundant, about 1,900 mm (75 in) per year, and being situated more to the south, it doesn't experience a real decrease in January and February, when it still rains a lot, so here the best time goes from mid-June to mid-September. Here is the average precipitation.
Popayán - Average precipitation

In Popayán, the sun does not shine very often as well, however, the sunniest period is the only one in which it does not rain much, that is, from June to September.
Popayán - Sunshine

El Niño

The climate of Colombia is influenced by the phenomenon known as ENSO: a cycle that comprises periods when the waters of the Pacific become warmer than normal, i.e. those classified as El Niño, alternating with normal (or neutral) periods, and others in which they become colder than normal, i.e. those classified as La Niña. In much of Colombia, in El Niño years the rainy season becomes hotter and drier than normal, while in La Niña years it becomes cooler and rainier. On the contrary, in the southernmost part of the coast, north of Ecuador (see Tumaco), the relatively dry season that normally occurs from August to November does not occur in El Niño years, when the rains are still heavy like in the rest of the year, while in La Niña years it becomes definitely dry.


The far north of Colomba (Guajira Peninsula, Barranquilla, Cartagena) lies at the edge of the area over which hurricanes, the tropical cyclones of the Atlantic Ocean, can pass. This means that hurricanes affect this area quite rarely, but sometimes they can do it, as happened with Hurricane Joan in October 1988, Cesar in late July 1996, and Matthew in late September 2016.
The islands of San Andrés and Providencia, being located a bit further to the north, are hit by hurricanes more often and in a more direct manner.
The hurricane season runs from June to November, but they are most likely from August to October.

Best Time

It's hard to find a single period that is fine for all of Colombia, but in most of the country the best time is from December to March, since it is the driest, or at least the least rainy.
However, there are areas where the rains are abundant throughout the year (see the forest), or where the least rainy season is inverted (see the extreme south both of the Amazon and of the Andean area), or areas where the least rainy period runs from August to November (see the southernmost part of the Pacific coast, which as mentioned is also affected by the El Niño cycle).
As previously mentioned, the Caribbean Sea is warm enough all year round for swimming and sun bathing. The Pacific Ocean is warm all year round as well, and has more constant temperatures: 25/26 °C (77/79 °F) for most of the year, with a peak of 27 °C (81 °F) in October, but as we said this coastline is rainy all year round.

What to pack

In plains and lowlands, in general, bring light clothing all year round. In the forest, bring loose-fitting clothing, light shirts and pants of natural fibers (cotton, linen) or synthetics that breathe, maybe with long sleeves against mosquitoes; possibly a light sweatshirt and a light raincoat for thunderstorms. On the coast, and possibly a light scarf and a light sweatshirt for the sea breeze. In the savannah (Barranquilla, Cartagena), you can bring a light sweatshirt and a light raincoat for thunderstorms during the rainy season.
In the tierras templadas (see Medellín), bring light clothing, a sweatshirt for the evening, a raincoat or umbrella.
In the tierras frías (see Bogota), bring clothes for spring and autumn, a sweater or sweatshirt, a jacket, a raincoat or umbrella.
In high mountains, bring warm clothes, such as a down jacket, a hat, gloves, a scarf, hiking shoes.