Index


Introduction



In New Zealand, the climate is oceanic, mild in the north and cool in the south, and also windy and rainy, especially in the southern and western regions. The weather is often variable, and there can be sunshine and rain alternating in a few hours, as is typical of oceanic climates. In summer, it rarely gets hot, and in winter, it rarely gets very cold, except in the far south.
Rainfall is quite frequent throughout the year, but it is usually more frequent in winter than in summer, except in the extreme south (see Invercargill), where it is frequent even in summer.
The amount of sunshine is not exceptional, but it's acceptable in summer, at least in the north, where there is a good number of sunny days.
Being in the Southern Hemisphere, the seasons in New Zealand are reversed as compared with Europe or North America.

North Island



The country is made up of two main islands, the North Island and the South Island, plus several smaller islands. Let's start with the North Island, which has a mild oceanic climate.

Auckland

In Auckland, in the northern part of the island, the average temperature ranges from 11 °C (52 °F) in July and August to 20 °C (68 °F) in January and February. Here are the average temperatures.
Auckland - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)161715131188810111315
Max (°C)242423201715141516182022
Min (°F)616359555246464650525559
Max (°F)757573686359575961646872

Rainfall is fairly abundant, since it amounts to 1,250 millimeters (49.5 inches) per year, and it's well distributed over the months. However, the rainiest season is winter, when rainfall exceeds 100 mm (4 in) per month, from May to August. Here is the average precipitation.
Auckland - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)8095809512513514511510010090801240
Prec.(in)3,13,73,13,74,95,35,74,53,93,93,53,148,8
Days77810141416141311108132

The sun in Auckland can be seen, between one depression and another, all year round, but especially in summer. Here are the average sunshine hours per day.
Auckland - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours776554455666

Near Auckland, the temperature of the sea is very cool, however, it reaches 21 °C (70 °F) in February and March, when those who do not suffer from the cold can try to swim.
Auckland - Sea temperature
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temp (°C)202121191817161515161719
Temp (°F)687070666463615959616366

Wellington

The capital, Wellington, is located in the southern part, in the Cook Strait, which separates the two islands and is very windy. Winter is mild, the average temperature in July being 9.5 °C (49 °F). Summer is cool: the average of January and February is 18 °C (64 °F). Here are the average temperatures.
Wellington - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)15151412108779101114
Max (°C)212120171513121315161820
Min (°F)595957545046454548505257
Max (°F)707068635955545559616468

Annual precipitation in Wellington is similar to that of Auckland and amounts to 1,200 mm (47 in). The rainiest period is from May to August, which is also the one with the most frequent rains (11 to 13 days per month) and the lowest amount of sunshine (3/4 sunshine hours per day). Even in summer, however, it rains on average for 7/8 days per month, except in February, when there are only 6 days with rainfall. Here is the average precipitation.
Wellington - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)808080951151151351159510090901190
Prec.(in)3,13,13,13,74,54,55,34,53,73,93,53,546,9
Days76891112131210998114

In Wellington, the sunshine hours too, follow a pattern similar to that of Auckland.
Wellington - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours876543445677

The sea in Wellington is always cold, however, it reaches 17/18 °C (63/64 °F) from January to March, as can be seen in the following table.
Wellington - Sea temperature
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temp (°C)171817161514131313131416
Temp (°F)636463615957555555555761

In the interior of the North Island, there are hills and also a mountain, Ruapehu, where you can go skiing in winter, and on top of which, above 2,500 meters (8,200 feet), eternal snows are found.

Wellington

South Island



The South Island is cooler and is exposed to the westerly winds, which here blow for most of the year. In winter, however, snow and frost due to cold air masses of polar origin may occur, especially in the southern part.
This island is crossed by the Southern Alps, which culminate in Mount Cook, 3,754 meters (12,316 feet) high. The western side is definitely wet, in fact, precipitation is between 2,000 and 3,500 mm (80 and 140 in) per year along the coast, and it's even higher on the western slopes, where it reaches as high as 6 meters (19.5 feet) per year. The eastern side, where the main cities of the island are located, is definitely less rainy, in fact, precipitation decreases below 1,000 mm (40 in) per year, and some inland areas are even arid: in Alexandra, only 330 mm (13 in) of rain fall per year.

In the mountain range, there are eternal snows above 2,000 meters (6,500 feet). In the central and southern areas of the South Island, there are glaciers that descend from the mountains almost to sea level, and after turning into rivers, flow into the sea or feed lakes.

Christchurch

Christchurch, located on the east coast, receives 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year and is the driest between the major cities of New Zealand, even though the rains are still quite frequent. Here is the average precipitation.
Christchurch - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)554550506565705045455055645
Prec.(in)2,21,8222,62,62,821,81,822,225,4
Days75678998777787

The average temperature ranges from 6 °C (43 °F) in June and July to 17 °C (63 °F) in January. In this, as in other cities of the eastern side, there can sometimes be sudden rises in temperature due to downslope winds that descend from the mountains. Here are the average temperatures.
Christchurch - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)1212107411246811
Max (°C)232220171412111215171921
Min (°F)545450453934343639434652
Max (°F)737268635754525459636670

In Christchurch too, between one disturbance and another, the sun can be seen all year round, but especially in summer.
Christchurch - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours776544456677

On the western side of the South Island, wind is frequent and intense, especially in the south-west, the area of the fjords. As mentioned, we are in the area of the westerly winds that sweep the southern seas around Antarctica.

Invercargill

In the far south, the climate is very cool, if not cold: in Invercargill, the average temperature ranges from 5.5 °C (42 °F) in July to 14 °C (57 °F) in January.
Invercargill - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)1098642124679
Max (°C)191917151210101113141618
Min (°F)504846433936343639434548
Max (°F)666663595450505255576164

The rains in Invercargill are frequent throughout the year, as well as wind and cloud cover. Here is the average precipitation.
Invercargill - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)10585100105110908080801051051001145
Prec.(in)4,13,33,94,14,33,53,13,13,14,14,13,945,1
Days12911121312121110121311138

In Invercargill and on the western side, the sun is seen a little less often than on the eastern side of the South Island.
Invercargill - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours665433345666

The city of Dunedin, which is located in the south-east, is a little more sheltered from rain and wind, but all in all, it has a similar climate.

Alexandra

The coldest cities in winter are those located in the southern inland areas, such as the aforementioned Alexandra, which, in addition to being dry, is also cold, with an average in July of only 3 °C (37.5 °F). Here, during cold waves, there may be intense frosts at night.
Alexandra - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)1110842-1-203579
Max (°C)2424211713981215182022
Min (°F)525046393630283237414548
Max (°F)757570635548465459646872

In Alexandra, the rains are frequent throughout the year, but they are scarce, since they don't reach 300 mm (12 in) per year. Here is the average precipitation.
Alexandra - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)403030302020101020302030290
Prec.(in)1,61,21,21,20,80,80,40,40,81,20,81,211,4
Days1098111312101210131013131

The temperature of the sea on the South Island is always cold; near Christchurch, it ranges from 10 °C (50 °F) in the winter months to 15 °C (59 °F) in January and February. In the far south, in Invercargill, it only reaches 13 °C (55 °F) in January and February, although it still doesn't drop below 10 °C (50 °F) in winter.
Invercargill - Sea temperature
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temp (°C)131313121110101010101112
Temp (°F)555555545250505050505254

Small islands



Let us now have a look at the climate of some islands belonging to New Zealand, but far away from the main territory.
Raoul Island, more than 950 kilometers (600 miles) north-east of the North Island, is mild and rainy. The average ranges from 16 °C (61 °F) in July and August to 22 °C (72 °F) in February. On average, 1,500 mm (60 in) of rain fall per year, well distributed, though with a relative maximum in winter and a relative minimum in spring.
Campbell Island, 600 km (370 mi) south of the South Island, is an uninhabited island, definitely cold and windy all year round, in fact, the average temperature ranges from 4/5 °C (39/41 °F) in winter to 9 °C (48 °F) in summer. Rainfall is frequent throughout the year, and even snowfall in winter. The sky is almost always overcast.
The Chatham Islands, 900 km (550 mi) east of the South Island, have a mild oceanic climate, similar to certain areas of the South Island itself, with frequent rainfall throughout the year, though not abundant, and an average temperature ranging from 7 °C (44.5 °F) in July to 14 °C (57 °F) in January and February.

Tropical cyclones



New Zealand is not located in the path of cyclones, but once in a while, a tropical cyclone, usually weakened, may reach these latitudes, usually affecting the North Island and the northernmost part of the South Island, bringing rain, wind, and storm surges. In the last few decades, tropical cyclones or their remains have affected New Zealand from mid-December to April 20, with a higher frequency from January to March.

Best Time



The best time to visit New Zealand is the austral summer, from December to March, since it is pleasantly warm on the North Island and cool on the South Island. If you want to visit the country in winter, for example in August, you can choose the North Island, which is milder and more sheltered from cold waves, and maybe you can combine the exploration of the cities with a bit of skiing in the mountains.

What to pack



In winter (June to August): for the North Island, Auckland, and Wellington, bring spring/autumn clothes, a sweater, a jacket, and a raincoat or umbrella. For the South Island, bring warm clothes, such as a down jacket, a scarf, a hat, and a raincoat. For high mountains, mountain clothing.
In summer (December to February): for the North Island, Auckland, and Wellington, and the South Island down to Christchurch, bring light clothes for the day, a sweatshirt and a light jacket for the evening, and a raincoat or umbrella. For the south, spring/autumn clothes, a sweater, and a raincoat or umbrella. For the Southern Alps, warm mountain clothing.

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