In Oman, the climate is tropical desert almost everywhere, with some summer rains in both the northern and southern mountain areas, and clouds brought by the summer monsoon along the eastern coast. The monsoon, from mid-June to mid-September, is due to wet currents blowing towards the Asian continent, and brings limited effects in terms of rain, but it's nonetheless able to influence the climate of the country.

Index


North coast



The north coast

Along the coast of the Gulf of Oman, the climate is desert, sunny all year-round, with a few winter rains, more likely in the far north, ie the Musandam Peninsula, an exclave of Oman in the United Arab Emirates, where 15/20 millimeters (0.6/0.8 inches) of rain fall per month from December to March. This area is very hot in summer, with highs around 37/38 °C (99/100 °F) on average, and the humidity of the sea that makes the heat oppressive. When the wind blows from inland, the humidity drops, but the temperature can get close to as high as 50 °C (122 °F). The winter temperature is pleasant: the daily average is around 20 °C (68 °F) in the far north and 21 °C (70 °F) in Muscat, the capital.

Muscat

In contrast to the northern tip, along the northern coast (called Al Batinah), where Muscat is located, the hottest month is June, while in July and August, cloud banks brought by the southwest monsoon can slightly lower the daytime temperature, which is around 40 °C (104 °F) in June and then drops to 38 °C (100 °F) in July and to 36 °C (97 °F) in August. Here are the average temperatures of Muscat.
Muscat - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)171820242930302827242118
Max (°C)252630354040383636353027
Min (°F)636468758486868281757064
Max (°F)777986951041041009797958681

Rainfall in Muscat is definitely scarce, in fact, it amounts to 100 millimeters (4 inches) per year. In summer, despite the southwest monsoon, it almost never rains. Here is the average precipitation.
Muscat - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)22271511512500510103
Prec.(in)0.91.10.60.40.200.10.2000.20.44.1
Days23210111000213

The sun in Muscat shines all year round, however, the sunshine hours slightly decrease in July and August. Here are the average sunshine hours per day.
Muscat - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours999101111991010109

The Gulf of Oman is warm enough for swimming all year round, and it becomes very warm in summer, as we can see in the following table.
Muscat - Sea temperature
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temp (°C)242424272931313029292725
Temp (°F)757575818488888684848177

Muscat

Hajar Mountains



Hajar Mountains

In the mountains located near the northern coast, called Al Hajar, and culminating in Jebel Shams, 3,009 meters (9,872 feet) high, the south-west monsoon brings a bit of rain, which added to the relatively poor rains (and sometimes even snowfalls) of winter, raises the total of the year in some areas above 200/300 mm (8/12 in), still not much, but sufficient for the growth of some shrubs or drought-resistant plants.

Saiq

In Saiq, at almost 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) above sea level, the average temperature in January is 10 °C (50 °F), so it is quite low, with possible frosts at night. In June and July, highs are around 29/30 °C (84/86 °F). On the contrary, at lower altitudes, the summer heat is intense.
Saiq - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)57101418202120171396
Max (°C)151820242931313028242017
Min (°F)414550576468706863554843
Max (°F)596468758488888682756863

In Saiq, 310 millimeters (12 inches) of rain fall per year, with a relative maximum in summer. Here is the average precipitation.
Saiq - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)203035302015455030151010310
Prec.(in)0.81.21.41.20.80.61.821.20.60.40.412.2
Days23322344211127

In the Musandam Peninsula too, there are mountains (see the small circle at the top of the map), whose highest point is Jebel Al Harim, 2,087 meters (6,847 feet) high, but they are desert because in summer they do not receive any rainfall.

East coast



Coast of the Arabian Sea

Along the coast of the Arabian Sea the climate is desert. Winter becomes progressively warmer as you move south, while summer becomes less hot, but also more humid and cloudy because of the greater influence of the south-west monsoon (called Khareef). A moderate wind often blows, making the sea choppy. However, there can be periods, which typically last two or three days, with the wind blowing from inland, often accompanied by sandstorms, and the temperature soaring, especially from April to July, when it can exceed 40 °C (104 °F); these events are more likely in the northern part of the coast, while in the south, the coast of Dhofar is more sheltered from these hot winds.

Masirah

On the island of Masirah, the temperature is high even in winter; in this season, it rarely rains and the sun shines. The temperature gradually increases until April, May, and June, when it reaches 35 °C (95 °F), then it goes back to 31/32 °C (88/90 °F) in July and August, when humidity and cloudiness increase, even though the rainfall remains scarce. In a typical year, only 40 mm (1.6 in) of rain fall.
Masirah - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)191921242626242324232321
Max (°C)272830343635323131323028
Min (°F)666670757979757375737370
Max (°F)818286939795908888908682

The sun in Masirah regularly shines throughout the year, except in the summer months, when cloud banks can reach the area.
Masirah - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours99101011988910109

However, the effects of the monsoon are more evident in the southern part of the coast.

Salalah

In Salalah, the capital of Dhofar, the daytime temperature reaches 32/33 °C (90/91 °F) in May and June, but then it goes down to 27/29 °C (81/84 °F) in July and August, when even a bit of rain falls, just 20/25 mm (0.8/1 in) per month, in the form of frequent drizzle. In addition, in July and August, a permanent layer of clouds and fog hangs over this part of the coast; for this reason, the daily temperature range is narrow.
Salalah - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)192022242727252424232220
Max (°C)282830323332292729313129
Min (°F)666872758181777575737268
Max (°F)828286909190848184888884

Here is the average precipitation in Salalah. Although there are "officially" only 7/8 days with some rain per month in July and August, light drizzle occurs more often.
Salalah - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)10668822251050596
Prec.(in)000.20.20.30.30.910.40.200.23.8
Days02011378300025

The sun in Salalah normally shines in the other seasons, but it practically disappears in July and August.
Salalah - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours991010117116101010

The Arabian Sea is warm enough for swimming all year round, and it is warmer in spring and autumn, while in summer, the water temperature drops a bit because the wind increases evaporation and mixes the water layers.
Salalah - Sea temperature
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temp (°C)252526282928252425282726
Temp (°F)777779828482777577828179

Southern mountains



Southern mountain range

In the southern coastal range of the Dhofar region, north of Salalah, the climate is cooled by altitude, and the summer monsoon is able to release a bit of rain, so much so that the landscape is green, at least along the slopes facing southwest and during the rainy season. At 700/1,000 meters (2,300/3,300 feet) above sea level, the temperatures are mild in winter, around 21/22 °C (70/72 °F) during the day, and also in summer, while in spring and autumn, they are higher, around 28/30 °C (82/86 °F). In summer, the rains are usually light, but they occur almost daily.

Qairoon

Here are the average temperatures of Qairoon Hairitti, located at 850 meters (2,800 ft) above sea level.
Qairoon - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)131417202121201919191714
Max (°C)212325293029232126282622
Min (°F)555763687070686666666357
Max (°F)707377848684737079827972

Dhofar mountains

The desert



Desert climate zone

In the vast inland desert area, which covers most of the country, the climate is desert, mild in winter (with cool nights and warm days) and scorching in summer, with average highs regularly above 40 °C (104 °F), but with peaks around as high as 50 °C (122 °F). In summer, however, some cloudiness can form here as well, and there's a slight decrease in the maximum temperatures in July and August, but generally, it doesn't rain.
Here, for example, are the average temperatures of Haima, located in the center of the country.
Haima - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)121417222527282524211815
Max (°C)273033394344424240373329
Min (°F)545763727781827775706459
Max (°F)818691102109111108108104999184

Tropical cyclones



Every now and then, Oman can be reached by tropical cyclones, which bring strong winds and torrential rainfall, as happened with Cyclone Gonu in early June 2007, Phet in early June 2010, Keila in early November 2011, and Mekunu in May 2018.
Cyclones form from May to December, and are more frequent at the beginning of the period (May-June) and a little less at the end (October-December).

Best Time



The best time to visit Oman, to go on excursions to the desert and the mountains, or to stroll around the cities, is winter, from December to February, which is sunny, pleasantly warm on the coast and quite warm in the desert during the day, but cool at night, and even cold in the mountains. However, in December, especially in the first half, tropical cyclones are still possible.
For a beach holiday, as previously mentioned, the sea is warm all year round; the air temperature is good in the period from November to March, but in November, there is still some risk of cyclones on the coast of the Arabian Sea, while in January, the temperature can sometimes be a bit cool on the coast of the Gulf of Oman, at least for those who are sensitive to cold.

What to pack



In winter: in Muscat and the north, bring light clothes for the day, a sweater and a jacket for the evening and for cool days, and a scarf for the wind. For high mountains, bring spring/autumn clothes, and a sweater and a jacket for the evening. For the desert, light clothes for the day, a scarf or turban, desert boots or sandals, and a sweater or jacket for the evening and early morning. For the Arabian Sea coast (see Salalah and Masirah), light clothing, and a sweatshirt for the evening. For the southern coastal mountain range, light clothes for the day, and a sweater and a jacket for the evening.
When going to the reef, you can bring snorkeling equipment, including water shoes or rubber-soled shoes.

In summer: in Muscat, the north and the desert, bring loose-fitting, lightweight clothes, made of natural fabric (cotton or linen), a desert turban, and a sweater and a scarf for air conditioned places. For high mountains, bring light clothes, a sun hat, and a sweatshirt for the evening. For the Arabian Sea coast (see Salalah and Masirah), light clothes, a light sweatshirt and a scarf for the breeze, and a light raincoat. For the southern coastal mountain range, spring/autumn clothes, a light jacket and a sweatshirt, and a raincoat.
It's better for women to avoid shorts and miniskirts outside tourist resorts.

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