In Iraq, the climate is desert in the center and the south, with mild winters and extremely hot summers, it's semi-desert in the north, with relatively cold winters, while in the northern mountains, the climate is cold and rainy (or snowy) in winter, warm and sunny in summer, but with cooler nights due to the high altitude.



In the north-eastern part of Iraq (zone 1 on the map), occupied by the mountains of Iraqi Kurdistan (Zagros and Taurus), winters are cold and rainy, while summers are hot and dry, even scorching up to quite high altitudes. Annual precipitation varies between 700 and 1,000 millimeters (27 and 40 inches), and occurs between October and April. This is the only area of Iraq which receives substantial rainfall.


In Sulaymaniyah, 850 meters (2,800 ft) above sea level, the average temperature in January is 4 °C (39 °F), while in July and August it's 31 °C (88 °F). So the summer is hot, as well as sunny, but the winter is cold, with possible snowfalls and frosts, when the area is reached by cold air masses from the north.
Here are the average temperatures in Sulaymaniyah.
Sulaymaniyah - Average temperatures
Min (°C)0151015202424201482
Max (°C)81016212835393935281911
Min (°F)323441505968757568574636
Max (°F)46506170829510210295826652

In Sulaymaniyah, annual precipitation amounts to 745 mm (29.5 in), most of which occur from November to April, while it never rains from June to September. Here is the average precipitation.
Sulaymaniyah - Average precipitation

In the northernmost mountainous area, winter is even colder, and in the most secluded valleys it is freezing. At higher altitudes, heavy snowfalls occur. The highest peak of Iraq is Cheekha Dar, 3,611 meters (11,847 feet) high, on the border with Iran.

Syrian desert

North-west of Mesopotamia, in the hilly area towards Syria (zone 4), the climate is desert, quite cold with frequent frosts in winter and hot in summer, though a bit less hot than in the plains because of altitude.


In Rutbah, 600 meters (2,000 feet) above sea level, the average is between 6.5 °C (43.5 °F) in January and 30 °C (86 °F) in July. In summer, the temperature can sometimes reach 45/47 °C (113/117 °F).
Ar Rutbah - Average temperatures
Min (°C)2581318222323201685
Max (°C)111518253035373633282014
Min (°F)364146556472737368614641
Max (°F)525964778695999791826857

Throughout the year, only 120 mm (4.7 in) of rain fall, concentrated in the winter months; during winter. Snow and frost are possible during cold spells. Here is the average precipitation.
Ar Rutbah - Average precipitation

In the rest of Iraq, which is covered by plains or hills (zones 2 and 3), the climate is arid, mild in winter and scorchingly hot in summer. Summer goes from June to September, but the months of May and October are hot as well. Compared with other desert and depopulated areas, in Mesopotamia the landscape changes locally both because the rivers can create wetlands, and because they are used for irrigation in large areas.


In the northern belt (zone 2), the climate is arid, but in the cold half of the year, for a few months some depressions can affect this area, bringing moderate rainfall.


In Mosul, located on the northernmost part of the plain, on the banks of the Tigris River, not far from the ancient Nineveh, winter is mild, but certainly it's not tropical: the January average is 7 °C (44.5 °F). From December to March it rains for 7/10 days per month, and sunny days alternate with periods of bad weather. At night it often gets cold, and sometimes the temperature can drop a few degrees below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F). Summer in Mosul is very hot, with a relentless sun, and with daytime temperatures of 43 °C (109 °F) in July and August, but with peaks of 47/48 °C (117/118 °F); fortunately, however, air humidity is low.
Mosul - Average temperatures
Min (°C)2371116212524191474
Max (°C)121519253339434338312114
Min (°F)363745526170777566574539
Max (°F)5459667791102109109100887057

Throughout the year, in Mosul, 365 mm (14.5 in) of rain fall: they are not many, but they are concentrated between November and April, with very few rains in May and October, while between June and September it almost never rains. Here is the average precipitation.
Mosul - Average precipitation

In Mosul, the sun shines regularly in summer, while in winter it shines quite often, but there are also cloudy periods.
Mosul - Sunshine

South-east of Mosul, Kirkuk has a similar climate because the more southern position is balanced by the slightly higher altitude, around 350 meters (1,150 ft).

Nineveh Gates


Throughout central and southern Iraq (zone 3) the climate is desert or semi-desert, with mild winters, which are progressively warmer as you head south. Summers are extremely hot. Fortunately, even in this area the air humidity during the summer months is low because the prevailing winds, often lively and sometimes capable of generating dust storms, come from the west or north-west and therefore from the interior. The wind is more frequent in the central and southern parts of the country.


In the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, the average temperature ranges from 9.5 °C (49 °F) in January to 35 °C (95 °F) in July, when highs are as high as 44 °C (111 °F). Here too, summer is hot and the sunshine reigns supreme, with peaks of around 50 °C (122 °F): these temperatures make Baghdad one of the hottest capitals in the world. In winter, days are mild but nights are often cold, and the temperature may drop a few degrees below freezing. Here are the average temperatures.
Baghdad - Average temperatures
Min (°C)46101520232625211695
Max (°C)161924303741444440332417
Min (°F)394350596873797770614841
Max (°F)6166758699106111111104917563

Throughout the year, only 150 mm (6 in) of rain fall, almost all from November to March; from June to September it never rains. Here is the average precipitation.
Baghdad - Average precipitation

In Baghdad, the sun shines quite often even from November to April, when, however, sometimes a weather front can affect the city. In summer, clear skies prevail, even though sometimes some cloud banks can move over the area.
Baghdad - Sunshine


In the nearby cities of Kerbala and Ramadi, the climate is similar to that of Baghdad.
Further south, the temperatures rise a bit in winter: in Basra and Nasiriya the average ranges from 11 °C (52 °F) in January to 35.5 °C (96 °F) in July. On the coast of the Persian Gulf, it reaches 12 °C (53.5 °F) in January. However, the south in winter may experience some slight frosts at night as well. The rainfall in the south amounts to only 100 mm (4 in) per year, a value typical of a desert climate.
Nasiriya - Average temperatures
Min (°C)681218242628272419138
Max (°C)172025323943454542352619
Min (°F)434654647579828175665546
Max (°F)63687790102109113113108957966

In Basra, in summer the humidity remains quite low, but it rises a little compared with other cities, not because of the proximity of the sea, but because of the presence of wetlands in the area: in July the humidity in the afternoon rises to 23%, compared with 10% in Baghdad, and 11% in Nasiriya. Since the prevailing wind blows from the north-west, even in Al-Faw, located on the coast, the air in summer is often dry.

The Persian Gulf is very cool for swimming in winter, while in summer it becomes very warm, exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) for a few months.
Al-Faw - Sea temperature
Temp (°C)191718212629313231292622
Temp (°F)666364707984889088847972

The south-western area of Iraq has a desert climate, and it's the driest area of the country; in fact, precipitation drops to about 50 mm (2 in) per year. In this area, there are practically no settlements, in fact the population is concentrated from the antiquity in Mesopotamia, the valley between the two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris.

In late winter and spring, Iraq can be affected by strong southerly winds, which may give rise to dust storms; these winds may occur even in autumn and winter, though more rarely. On the contrary, during the long summer months, the shamal blows, a moderate northwesterly wind, very hot dry, which may cause rapid dehydration, and when it's more intense, it can raise dust or sand.

Best Time

From the point of view of the temperatures, the best times to visit Iraq are spring and autumn: in the north, below 1,000 meters (3,300 feet), in cities like Mosul and Sulaymaniyah the best months are April and from mid-October to mid-November, while in the center and south (see Baghdad, Basra), they are March and November: in this way you avoid both the scorching heat of summer and the possible cold in winter. Sometimes, however, in these periods it can rain, especially in the north. In May and October, the temperatures are already well above 30 °C (86 °F), and can already approach 40 °C (104 °F); on the other hand, it almost never rains.

What to pack

In winter: in the north and north-west (Mosul, Nineveh, Rutbah), bring warm clothes, a jacket, a hat, a raincoat or umbrella, a scarf; in the mountains of Kurdistan, mountain and snow outfit, warm boots; in the center and south (Baghdad, Basra), spring/autumn clothes, a jacket and a sweater, a hat for cold nights.

In summer: in the whole country at low altitude, from north to south, bring lightweight, loose fitting, light-colored clothing, light and long shirt and pants of natural fibres (cotton, linen), a sun hat, a desert turban; in the north and north-west (Mosul, Nineveh, Rutbah), you can bring a light sweatshirt for the night and early morning. In the mountains of Kurdistan, light clothes for the day, a sun hat or desert turban, a sweatshirt or sweater for the evening, a jacket for the highest peaks; hiking shoes.

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