Map from Google - Somalia

In Somalia, a country located in the so-called Horn of Africa, the climate is tropical, hot all year round, and generally dry.
Precipitation is generally scarce, typical of a desert or semi-desert climate in vast areas, while the wettest areas are occupied by the savannah. The driest areas are the northern coast, where the rainfall amount comes down to around 50 millimetres (2 inches) per year, and the north-east, where it remains under 200 mm (8 in), while the rainiest areas are the northwest, where lies the extreme offshoot of the Ethiopian Highlands, and because of the altitude, precipitation reaches 500 mm (20 in) per year (see Hargeisa), and the south-west, where it even exceeds 500 mm (20 in) per year in the hilly interior (see Baidoa).
The rains occur in two periods, corresponding to the passages of the sun at its zenith, from March to late May (the Gu), and from October to early December (the Dayr). Typically the wettest months are April-May and October-November, but there are some exceptions: on the northern coast, where it rains very little, in practice even these months remain dry; in the southern part of the coast, crossed by the Equator (see Mogadishu), the second rainy season in practice is not felt, while even July is quite rainy.
However, the rains in Somalia are quite irregular from year to year, they usually occur in the form of short showers and thunderstorms, and given the aridity of the soil, which has difficulty absorbing water, when they are more intense than usual they can give rise to flash floods, usually in the south, in the valleys of the two main rivers, Juba and Shabelle, in the rainy season of Gu, and until July (therefore from March to July), but sometimes even in the north, during the passages of the rare tropical cyclones (see below).
During summer the northern part of Somalia is affected by the southwest monsoon, characterized by currents who head to the Arabian Peninsula, but do not produce special effects in Somalia, except for the passage of some cloud banks, because the winds blow from inland.

On the north coast, overlooking the Gulf of Aden, the climate is desert, with hot and muggy winters and very hot summers, in which the temperature can touch 45 °C (113 °F). The wind from the desert, especially in summer, can lift up clouds of dust. The rains are very rare and sporadic, and amount to approximately 50 mm (2 in) per year.
Here are the average temperatures of Bosaso (formerly Bender Cassim).
Average temperatures - Bosaso
Min (°C)212122242631323028222120
Max (°C)293031343741414039333029
Min (°F)707072757988908682727068
Max (°F)8486889399106106104102918684

On the northern coast the sun shines all year round, however in the summer some cloud banks can pass, as part of the aforementioned monsoon. Here are the sunshine hours per day in Berbera, in the western part of the coast.
Sunshine - Berbera
Sun (hours)99910109889101010

Beach in Somaliland

In the northern mountainous areas, the climate becomes milder, due to altitude influence.
In Hargeisa, located in the northwest at 1,300 metres (4,250 feet) above sea level, at night it can get cold in winter, when the minimum temperatures may drop below 5 °C (41 °F), from November to March. Daytime temperatures are pleasant in winter, while in the summer months they are acceptable, given that they hover around 30 °C (86 °F).
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Hargeisa
Min (°C)121315171818171717151312
Max (°C)242729293131292931282624
Min (°F)545559636464636363595554
Max (°F)758184848888848488827975

This northwestern area is one of the rainiest in the country, and the rains are not so scarce, since they amount to 415 mm (16.5 in) per year. In fact here there is only one rainy season, from mid-March to mid-October, in which, however, rainfall is not too frequent and usually not abundant.
Here is the average rainfall.
Average precipitation - Hargeisa
Prec. (mm)27306560355065652072413

In the north there is another mountain range, parallel to the coast, the Karkaar Mountains, whose highest peak is Shimbiris, 2,450 metres (8,038 feet) high. These mountains are quite green, especially in the northern side, and above 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) there are forests, while the coast to the north as we have seen is desert, and the plateau to the south is semi-desert.
On the east coast overlooking the Indian Ocean, temperatures are more stable throughout the year compared with the northern coast; in spring the temperature slightly rises, so that the hottest month is usually April in the south and May in the north, but then in summer the temperature decreases, for the prevalence of air masses coming from the ocean. However, the northern part is a bit hotter than the southern one.
The rainfall on the east coast increases as you head south, and while the north is definitely desert, with precipitation lower than 100 millimetres (4 inches) per year, in the centre it increases to about 200 mm (8 in), and in the south it exceeds 400 mm (16 in).
In the capital Mogadishu, which is located in the southern part of the east coast, just north of the equator, temperatures are high and stable throughout the year, however, there is an increase between March and May, and a decrease between July and September, which is, albeit slightly, the least hot period, because of the south-east trade winds, which in this southern part of the country blow in summer. Typically the humidity is high, although sea breezes temper the heat. Sometimes, however, there can be torrid days, when the wind blows from the interior, and this can happen all year round.
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Mogadishu
Min (°C)232325262524232323242424
Max (°C)303031323130292929303131
Min (°F)737377797775737373757575
Max (°F)868688908886848484868888

Rainfall amounts to 430 mm (17 in) per year; the first rainy period is shifted forward by a month and can last an extra month, therefore from April to July, then the rains drop and remain infrequent until November, without there being a clear recovery in October-November, as is the case in other parts of the country. However, the rainfall records are quite high from March to November, this means that during some years, there may be periods much rainier than usual.
Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Mogadishu
Prec. (mm)11860608065452530459429

The sun shines frequently throughout the year, but especially in winter. The least sunny months are June and July, ie the months when the rains are more frequent.
Sunshine - Mogadishu
Sun (hours)999997789998


In the southwest inland areas, winter is decidedly torrid, and in February and March the temperature rises further, before the rains. For example, in cities like Bardera and Garbahare, the maximum temperature in January is normally around 37 °C (99 °F), and that of March around 39 °C (102 °F), while in summer it drops to 33 °C (91 °F). Similar trend is found in the city of Baidoa (or Baydhabo), which, however, is a bit milder because it is located at 500 metres (1,600 feet) above sea level.
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Baidoa
Min (°C)202122222221202021212120
Max (°C)333435333231303031313232
Min (°F)687072727270686870707068
Max (°F)919395919088868688889090

In Baidoa, precipitation amounts to 570 mm (22.5 in) per year; the two rainy seasons, April-May and October-November, are very pronounced, while in the rest of the year it rains very little.
Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Baidoa
Prec. (mm)3425150105202010101258515572

Sometimes the centre-north of Somalia, but especially the north-east, in the Horn of Africa (in the region called Puntland), can be affected by a tropical cyclone, in the period from May to November, as happened in November 2013 and November 2015. Although in this country they are rare (so much so that the average rainfall in the northeast of Somalia is poor), cyclones can bring intense winds and torrential rains.

The temperature of the sea in Somalia is high enough for swimming all year round. In the Gulf of Aden, more closed and more to the north, it is lower in winter and higher in summer, when it becomes very warm, reaching 30 °C (86 °F) for several months.
Here are the average sea temperatures in Bosaso.
Sea temperature - Bosaso
Sea (°C)252627283030303030292726
Sea (°F)777981828686868686848179

On the east coast, the sea temperature becomes higher in winter as you head south, but then from June to September, the temperature drops slightly, due to the wind, which blows with more consistency and speed.
Here are the average sea temperatures in Mogadishu.
Sea temperature - Mogadishu
Sea (°C)272728292827262626272827
Sea (°F)818182848281797979818281

When to go

The best time to visit Somalia in its entirety is winter, from December to February, to avoid the summer heat of the north, and the rains in the transitional seasons. It must be recalled that in the mountainous northern area, nights can be cold, while in inland areas of the southwest, winter is hot.

What to pack

On the north coast, all year round, light clothing made of natural fibres (cotton or linen); in winter, a light sweatshirt for the evening; in summer, lightweight clothing, long and made of natural fibres, desert turban.
In the northern mountains, light clothes for the day, sunglasses, sun hat, desert boots or sandals; in winter, sweater and jacket for the evening; in summer, sweatshirt and light jacket for the evening.
On the coast of the Indian Ocean (see Mogadishu), all year round, light clothing of natural fibres, a light sweatshirt for the evening, a scarf for the breeze; sunglasses, sun hat. In the central and southern part, you can bring a light raincoat or umbrella between March and November (especially between April and August).
For the reef, snorkeling equipment, water shoes or rubber soled shoes.
For women, it is best to avoid shorts and miniskirts.