In Bhutan, the climate is influenced by altitude: it's subtropical in the lowlands, and becomes progressively colder as you climb the slopes of the Himalayas. In addition, the climate is influenced by the summer monsoon, which brings rains and widespread cloudiness for almost half a year, but especially from June to late September.

In the thin flat southern region, in cities like Gelephu and Phuentsholing, the climate is subtropical, with a very mild winter, a hot spring from March to May, with afternoon thunderstorms becoming more frequent, and a monsoon season from June to mid-October, with abundant rainfall, sometimes torrential, enhanced by the proximity to the mountains, and a muggy heat. In winter, sometimes it can get cold at night, while in April and May the temperature can reach as high as 40 °C (104 °F). The total annual rainfall can exceed 3,000 millimetres (118 inches). Here, the best time goes from November to February.
Here are the average temperatures of Gelephu.
Gelephu - Average temperatures
Min (°C)101215202224252524211511
Max (°C)232529323231313131302725
Min (°F)505459687275777775705952
Max (°F)737784909088888888868177

In hilly and mountainous areas up to 1,500 metres (5,000 feet), the climate becomes progressively milder, with relatively cold and dry winters, and warm and rainy summers, during which the monsoon rains occur in the southern side, while in some inland valleys the summer rains become less intense. For example, in Punakha, located at 1,300 metres (4,250 feet), the average goes from 11 °C (52 °F) in January, to 24 °C (75 °F) in July, so the summer is quite hot and humid despite the altitude.
Punakha - Average temperatures
Min (°C)581114172020202016106
Max (°C)171922252729282827262320
Min (°F)414652576368686868615043
Max (°F)636672778184828281797368

Above 2,000 metres (6,500 feet), winter begins to be cold, with nights usually below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F). In the capital, Thimphu, located in a valley, at an altitude varying between 2,200 and 2,600 metres (7,200 and 8,500 ft), the average temperature goes from 5 °C (41 °F) in January to 20 °C (68 °F) in the period from June to August. Winter is dry and sunny, but sometimes snow can fall. In summer, the monsoon rains are plentiful, so much so that 1,400 mm (55 in) of rain fall in a year, of which more than 250 mm (10 in) per month from June to August, and even 370 mm (14.5 in) in July. In the nearby city of Paro, a similar climate is found.
Thimphu - Average temperatures
Min (°C)-31471315151615105-1
Max (°C)121416202324252523221815
Min (°F)273439455559596159504130
Max (°F)545761687375777773726459

In some inland valleys, like that of Jakar, at 2,500 metres (8,200 ft), the monsoon penetrates with more difficulty, so that the annual precipitation is lower, and doesn't go above 750 mm (29.5 in) per year, though it still follows the same pattern, with a winter minimum and a summer maximum.
Above 2,800 metres (9,200 ft), the daily average temperature in January drops around freezing, and even summer nights begin to be cold.
Glaciers and snowfields begin at high altitudes, above 5,000 metres (16,400 ft). In the northernmost areas, the summer rains are not very heavy, but the sky in summer is often cloudy, and you can find fogs, or rather clouds lying over the mountain slopes.
The highest peak of Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, 7,570 metres (28,836 feet) high.

Temple in Bhutan

The sun in Bhutan shines regularly in winter, while in the monsoon period it does not shine very often. Here are the average daily sunshine hours in Thimphu.
Thimphu - Sunshine

Tropical cyclones

Bhutan is too far from the sea to be directly hit by tropical cyclones, but the remains of cyclones affecting Bangladesh, can cause heavy rains in the plains, as well as snow in the mountains, as happened in May 2009 with Cyclone Aila.
Cyclones typically occur from mid-April to early December, and most likely in May-June and October-November.

When to go

The best times to visit the mountainous part of Bhutan are spring and autumn, and particularly March and April, and from mid-October to mid-November. During the summer, the rains can make the roads muddy, so travelling becomes difficult, and besides the clouds can hide the mountain peaks. In winter, the weather is generally good, but it's cold in the mountains, besides snow can fall at high altitudes, and it can also block some passes.

What to pack

In winter: for the plain, spring/autumn clothes, light for the day, a jacket and a sweater for the evening. For Punakha and around 1,500 metres (5,000 feet), spring/autumn clothes for the day, warm for the evening, jacket, hat, scarf, sunglasses, sunscreen. For Thimphu and above 2,000 metres (6,500 feet), warm clothes for the evening, but during the day a fleece and a light jacket may be sufficient; hiking shoes. At higher altitudes, cold weather clothing, synthetic thermal long underwear, fleece, parka, wind jacket, warm boots.

In summer: for the plain, lightweight clothing of natural fibres, light raincoat or umbrella. For Punakha and around 1,500 metres (5,000 feet), light clothing, a sweatshirt for the evening, raincoat or umbrella. For Thimphu and above 2,000 metres (6,500 feet), spring/autumn clothes, light for the day, sweater and jacket for the evening. At higher altitudes, warm jacket, down jacket, hat, gloves, scarf. For overnight stays outdoors, sleeping bag, warm jacket.