Map from Google - Belgium

The climate of Belgium is cool and wet, being influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, especially on the coast and the plain, while it becomes more continental and also more unstable in summer in the south-eastern regions (Ardennes), which are located at higher altitudes, as well as at a greater distance from the sea.

Precipitation is frequent, but not particularly abundant. The coastal area is less rainy and is also slightly more sunny than the interior: precipitation amounts to 820 millimetres (32 inches) per year in Ostend, located on the coast, to 850 mm (33.5 in) in Brussels, a hundred kilometres (60 miles) away from the coast, and to 1,100 mm (43 in) in Spa, in the Ardennes.
Here is the average precipitation in Brussels.
Average precipitation - Brussels
BrusselsJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
BrusselsJFMAMJJASONDY
Prec. (mm)756070506570757570757580850
Prec.(in)32.42.822.62.8332.8333.133.5
Days131113101110101010111313136

Winter in Belgium is cold on the coast, but not freezing. The average temperature in February (which on the coast is, albeit slightly, the coldest month) is about 3.5 °C (38.5 °F). Sunshine is rare and the rains are frequent.
Proceeding towards the interior, the temperature gradually decreases. The rains are frequent here as well.
In the Ardennes, the winter is colder, both for the altitude and for the greater distance from the sea: in Bastogne, 500 metres (1,600 feet) above sea level, the average January temperature drops to about 0 °C (32 °F), and instead of rain, snow often falls.
Here are the average temperatures of Bastogne.
Average temperatures - Bastogne
BastogneJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
BastogneJFMAMJJASOND
Min (°C)-2-302691111851-1
Max (°C)3481216192121171374
Min (°F)282732364348525246413430
Max (°F)373946546166707063554539

Apart from the average temperatures, in winter the weather in Belgium varies depending on meteorological condition. The coldest days occur when the normal flow of the Atlantic winds is arrested, and is replaced by cold air masses from Eastern Europe: in these cases the temperature drops below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and snow can fall throughout the country. On the contrary, when the westerlies get stronger, the temperature can be mild even in winter, above 10 °C (50 °F), but sometimes there can be strong winds and even storm surges.
At other times, when a high pressure system moves over the country, a phenomenon quite rare but not impossible, the weather becomes cold and gray, with possible fog and overcast sky.

Summer in Belgium is pretty cool on the coast, with maximum temperatures reaching 21/22 °C (68/72 °F) in July and August. Cloudy and rainy days, due to Atlantic fronts, can affect the country even in this season.
In inland areas, the weather in summer is slightly warmer: in Brussels the July daily average is about 18.5 °C (65.5 °F), with highs about 23 °C (73 °F), but even here hot days are rare. The rains are more frequent, because of the higher chance of thunderstorms in the afternoon.
Here are the average temperatures of Brussels.
Average temperatures - Brussels
BrusselsJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
BrusselsJFMAMJJASOND
Min (°C)1135912141310842
Max (°C)671014182123232015106
Min (°F)343437414854575550463936
Max (°F)434550576470737368595043

In the Ardennes, the temperatures are slightly lower than in the plains, while afternoon thunderstorms are even more frequent.
Hot days, with maximum temperatures equal to or greater than 30 °C (86 °F), are quite rare but not impossible.

Spring and autumn are cool and cloudy seasons. It can be still cold in March and the first half of April, sometimes even in early May, with highs around 10 °C (50 °F). Spring, however, is less rainy than autumn and it's in fact the (relatively) less rainy season of the year. Autumn can be windy and gray, especially on the coast.

Dinant

The sun in Belgium is rarely seen from November to February, but even in summer it does not shine very often, however, from May to August there are slightly more than 6 hours of sunshine per day on average.
Sunshine - Brussels
BrusselsJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
BrusselsJFMAMJJASOND
Sun (hours)234666765422

In mid-summer (July-August) only the brave can try to swim in the sea: the sea temperature is 16 °C (61 °F) in July and 17 °C (63 °F) in August.
Sea temperature - Ostend
OstendJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
OstendJFMAMJJASOND
Sea (°C)87891113161717151310
Sea (°F)464546485255616363595550

When to go

The best time to visit Belgium goes from mid-May to mid-September: the temperatures are mild, the sky is often cloudy, but the percent of sunshine is not so low. The mid-summer period (July-August) is relatively warm, but it's also the rainiest, because of afternoon thunderstorms that can form especially in inland areas.
The other seasons are not definitely inadvisable, because weather extremes in Belgium are rare, but late autumn (November) is dark and rainy, while sometimes in winter it can be very cold or windy.

What to pack

In winter: warm clothing, sweater, coat, wind jacket, umbrella, possibly a warm hat and gloves for colder periods.
In summer: light clothes, but also some clothes for spring and autumn: shirt, jacket, sweatshirt or sweater; raincoat or umbrella.