In Latvia, a flat country overlooking the Baltic Sea, the climate is freezing in winter, and mild and quite rainy in summer. The coastal areas are a bit more temperate, but also more humid and windy, while the eastern area has a slightly more continental climate.

On the west coast (see Ventspils, Liepaja), the average temperatures are just below freezing in January and February, and around 17.5 °C (63 °F) in July and August. Here is the average temperature in Liepaja.
Liepaja - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)-3-4-2271114141062-2
Max (°C)1141015182121161162
Min (°F)272528364552575750433628
Max (°F)343439505964707061524336

The capital city, Riga, is located on the coast, but in the Gulf of the same name, which is closed and therefore receives a less pronounced maritime influence, so much so that in winter the sea can freeze. Here are the average temperatures of Riga.
Riga - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)-8-8-516101212840-4
Max (°C)-2-231016202221161040
Min (°F)181823344350545446393225
Max (°F)282837506168727061503932

Precipitation is not abundant, but it is frequent and well distributed throughout the year, however, in terms of quantity there's a relative minimum in the early months of the year. The coast is rainier than the interior: in Liepaja precipitation amounts to 690 millimetres (27 inches) per year, with a maximum in autumn, while in Riga it amounts to 620 mm (25 in), with a maximum between July and September (also due to afternoon thunderstorms). Here is the average precipitation in Riga.
Riga - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)352530404560757580605545620
Prec.(in)1.411.21.61.82.4333.12.42.21.824.4
Days221916111212131413161921186

Winter in Latvia is cold and gray, with frequent snowfalls, though usually not abundant. Average temperatures are not so low on the west coast: the daily average in February is around -1.5 °C (29 °F) in Liepaja, and -3 °C (27 °F) in Kolka (at the entrance of the Gulf of Riga), while it drops to -5 °C (23 °F) in Riga, and to -6 °C (21 °F) in Daugavpils and Kraslava, in the south-east. However, the average temperatures are only the result of different situations: western currents of Atlantic origin are damp but less cold, and can raise the temperature to a few degrees above freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), while cold air masses from Russia or from the Arctic may lower the temperature even below -20 °C (-4 °F); in the worst moments, the temperature can plunge to about -35 °C (-31 °F).

Spring in Latvia is quite late: in early April, the country may still be under the snow. By mid-April, temperatures become usually milder. In May the weather can still be cold, especially at the beginning of the month, but then the temperature rises over the course of the month, and it even exceeds 20 °C (68 °F) in the warmest days.

Summer is mild in coastal areas, with highs around 18/20 °C (64/68 °F), while it is slightly warmer in the interior, where maximum temperatures reach 20/22 °C (68/72 °F). Summer is also the rainiest season, especially in inland areas, where thunderstorms may occur in the afternoon. Sometimes, warm air masses from the south-east can raise the temperature, which can approach 30 °C (86 °F) for a few days.

In autumn, rainfall is frequent and the sky is often gray. The temperature gradually decreases: in October it's already cold and in November the first snowfalls occur.

Riga

The sun in Latvia is rarely seen from November to February, while from May to August it shines for a decent amount of time (the days are very long, so the total sunshine is not low).
Riga - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours1246810875311

The Baltic Sea in Latvia is cold to swim in: in the Gulf of Riga the sea temperature goes from 1 °C (34 °F) in February and March, to 16 °C (61 °F) in July and to 17 °C (63 °F) in August, while on the west coast it is just warmer. Here are the average sea temperatures near Riga.
Riga - Sea temperature
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temp (°C)21135101617151174
Temp (°F)363434374150616359524539

When to go



The best season to visit Latvia is summer, from June to August. The temperatures are mild during the day, and lend themselves to outdoor activities, while nights remain cool. There is a moderate amount of rainfall, which occurs on average one day out of three.
If you want to visit the country in its winter look, February is preferable to December because it has longer days, although it is even colder.

What to pack



In winter: very warm clothes, such as a down jacket, a hat, gloves, a scarf.
In summer: clothes for spring and autumn, being ready to add or remove the outer layer, a T-shirt, but also long pants, a jacket and sweatshirt; a raincoat or umbrella.