Moscow, where it is

In Moscow, the capital of Russia, the climate is continental, with very cold winters and mild to warm summers, when, however, there can be hot days.
Here are the average temperatures.
Moscow - Average temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)-9-10-42812141273-3-8
Max (°C)-4-4311192224221691-3
Min (°F)161425364654575445372718
Max (°F)252537526672757261483427

Precipitation is not very abundant, in fact, it amounts to 690 millimeters (27 inches) per year, but it's well distributed over the seasons; in winter, it almost always occurs as snow, while in summer it can occur in the form of thunderstorms. The first snowfalls usually occur in October, but occasionally, they can even occur in late September. Snow can quite easily fall in April, but the temperature can still drop below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F) in early May: as a character of Chekhov said, the Russian climate is a contradiction in terms. In winter, snowfalls are generally not abundant, also because of the cold, but they are frequent: dull weather, with a light and persistent snow, is typical of the Russian capital. However, in recent years, with the increase in temperature, heavy snowfalls have become more frequent.
Here is the average precipitation.
Moscow - Average precipitation
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Prec.(mm)403535455075957565606055690
Prec.(in)1.61.41.41.8233.732.62.42.42.227.2
Days11889811121011101212122

The rainiest months are July and August, mainly because of afternoon thunderstorms, which can sometimes be accompanied by strong wind gusts.

Winter is cold: the temperature is usually below freezing for several months. There is an average of 175 frost days (ie, with minimum temperatures below freezing) per year. However, the average temperature is the result of different situations: when the wind blows from Siberia, the temperature easily drops to -20 °C (-4 °F), and in the worst cases, it can plunge to -40 °C (-40 °F), but when the currents from the Atlantic Ocean arrive here, it can stay around freezing, or even slightly above, even in midwinter.

Typically, the thaw occurs in late March or early April. By the second half of April, the Russian capital can be reached by the warm wind from the southeast.

Summer, from June to August, is mild or pleasantly warm. The average summer temperature in Moscow is similar to that of cities like Paris or Berlin, but there are significant changes, in fact, there are hot and sultry days, with temperatures reaching 35 °C (95 °F), and also rainy and cool days, with highs around 15/16 °C (59/61 °F). Typically, periods of hot weather last a few days, and may be interrupted by thunderstorms or wind storms, although in the terrible summer of 2010, the heat lasted around two months.

As happens in big cities, in Moscow there is an urban heat island, where temperatures are higher, typically by one or two degrees Celsius, compared with the surrounding countryside, especially at night and in winter (when the difference can be even bigger).

Moscow, Red Square

The sun in Moscow is rarely seen from November to February, while from May to August, it shines about half the time (the days are very long, so the total amount of sunshine is not low). Here are the average sunshine hours per day.
Moscow - Sunshine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Hours134699985311

Best Time


The best time to visit Moscow runs from late May to early September: temperatures are usually pleasant, and the days are long (especially from early June to July 10, when it doesn't get completely dark even at midnight). However, this period is not always stable: sometimes, it rains and it's cool (and even a little cold at night), while at other times, it gets hot. There can also be afternoon thunderstorms.