Map from Google - Somalia

In Somalia, East African country, in the so-called Horn of Africa, the climate is tropical, hot all year round, and generally dry.
Precipitation is generally scarce, typical of a desert or semi-desert climate in vast areas, while the wettest areas are occupied by savannah. The driest areas are the northern coast, where the rainfall amount comes down to around 50 millimetres per year, and the north-east, where it remains under 200 mm, while the rainiest area are the northwest, where lies the extreme offshoot of the Ethiopian Highlands, and thanks to the altitude precipitation reaches 500 mm per year (see Hargeisa), and the south-west, where it even exceeds 500 mm per year in the hilly interior (see Baidoa).
The rains occur in two periods, corresponding to the passages of the sun at its zenith, from March to late May (the Gu), and from October to early December (the Dayr). Typically the wettest months are April-May and October-November, but there are some exceptions: on the northern coast, where it rains very little, in practice even these months remain dry; in the southern part of the coast, crossed by the Equator (see Mogadishu), the second rainy season in practice is not felt, while even July is quite rainy.
However, the rains in Somalia are quite irregular from year to year, usually they occur in the form of short showers and thunderstorms, and given the aridity of the soil, which has difficulty absorbing water, when they are more intense than usual they can give rise to flash floods, usually in the south, in the valleys of the two main rivers, Juba and Shabelle, in the rainy season of Gu, and until July (then from March to July), but sometimes even in the north, during the passages of the rare tropical cyclones (see below).
During summer the northern part of Somalia is affected by the southwest monsoon, characterized by currents who head to the Arabian Peninsula, but do not produce special effects in Somalia, except the passage of some cloud banks, because the winds blow from inland.

On the north coast, overlooking the Gulf of Aden, the climate is desert, with warm and muggy winters and very hot summers, where the temperature can touch 45 °C. The winds from the desert, especially in summer, can raise clouds of dust. The rains are very rare and sporadic, and amount to approximately 50 millimetres per year. Sunshine prevails throughout the year, but especially in spring and autumn.
Here are the average temperatures of Bosaso (formerly Bender Cassim).
Average temperatures - Bosaso
Min (°C)212122242631323028222120
Max (°C)293031343741414039333029

Beach in Somaliland

In the mountain areas of the north, the climate becomes milder because of altitude.
In Hargeisa, at 1,300 metres above sea level in the northwest, at night it can get cold in winter, when the minimum temperatures may drop below 5 degrees, from November to March. The daytime temperatures are pleasant in winter, while in the summer months they are acceptable, given that they hover around 30 degrees.
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Hargeisa
Min (°C)121315171818171717151312
Max (°C)242729293131292931282624

This northwestern area is one of the rainiest areas of the country, and the rains are not so scarce, since they amount to 415 millimetres per year. In fact here there is only one rainy season, from mid-March to mid-October, in which the rain is still not too frequent and usually not abundant.
Here is the average rainfall.
Average precipitation - Hargeisa
Prec. (mm)27306560355065652072413

In the north there is another mountain range, parallel to the coast, the Karkaar mountains, whose highest peak is Shimbiris, 2,450 metres high. These mountains are quite green, especially on the northern side, and above 1,200 metres there are forests, while the coast to the north as we have seen is desert, and the plateau to the south is semi-desert.
On the east coast overlooking the Indian Ocean, the temperatures are more stable throughout the year compared with the northern coast; while in spring the temperature rises slightly, so that the hottest month is usually April in the south and May in the north, then in summer the temperature decreases, for the prevalence of the ocean currents. However, the northern part is a bit hotter than the southern one.
The rainfall on the east coast increases as you head south, and while the north is definitely desert, so that annual precipitation levels measure less than 100 millimetres per year, in the centre the rains increase to about 200 mm, and in the south they exceed 400 mm.
In the capital Mogadishu, which is located in the south coast, just north of the equator, temperatures are high and stable throughout the year, however, there is an increase between March and May, and a decrease between July and September, which is albeit slightly the less hot period, because of the south-east trade winds, which in this southern part of the country blow in summer. Typically the humidity is high, although sea breezes temper a bit the heat. Sometimes however, there can be very hot days when the winds blow from the interior, and this can happen all year round.
The sun shines frequently throughout the year, but especially in winter.
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Mogadishu
Min (°C)232325262524232323242424
Max (°C)303031323130292929303131

Rainfall amounts to 430 millimetres per year; the first rainy period is shifted forward by a month and can last an extra month, therefore from April to July, then the rains drop and remain infrequent until November, without there being a clear recovery in October-November as it happens in other parts of the country. However the rainfall records are quite high from March to November, this means that depending on year, there may be periods much rainier than usual.
Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Mogadishu
Prec. (mm)11860608065452530459429


In the inland areas of southwest, winter is very hot, and in February and March the temperatures rise further, before the rains. For example, in cities like Bardera and Garbahare the maximum temperature in January is normally around 37 degrees, that of March around 39 °C, while in summer it drops to 33 °C. Similar trend is found in the city of Baidoa, which however is a bit milder because it is located at 500 metres above sea level.
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Baidoa
Min (°C)202122222221202021212120
Max (°C)333435333231303031313232

In Baidoa, precipitation equals 570 millimetres per year; the two rainy seasons, April-May and October-November, are very pronounced, while in the rest of the year it rains very little.
Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Baidoa
Prec. (mm)3425150105202010101258515572

Sometimes the north-central of Somalia, but especially the north-east, in the Horn of Africa (Puntland), can be affected by a tropical cyclone, in the period from May to November, as happened in November 2013 and November 2015. Although in this country they are rare (so much so that the average rainfall in the northeast of Somalia is poor), cyclones can bring sustained winds and torrential rain.

The temperature of the sea in Somalia is high enough for swimming all year round. In the Gulf of Aden, more closed and warmer in summer, it is lower in winter and higher in summer, when it gets very warm, reaching 30 °C for several months.
Here are the average sea temperatures in Bosaso.
Sea temperature - Bosaso
Sea (°C)252627283030303030292726

On the east coast the sea temperature becomes higher in winter as you head south, but then from June to September, the temperature drops slightly, due to the wind, which blows with more consistency and speed.
Here are the average sea temperatures in Mogadishu.
Sea temperature - Mogadishu
Sea (°C)272728292827262626272827

When to go

The best time to visit Somalia in its entirety is winter, from December to February, to avoid the summer heat of the north, and the rain in the transitional seasons. It must be recalled that in the mountainous north the nights can be cold, while in the inland areas of the southwest the winter is hot.

What to pack

On the north coast, all year round, light clothing made of natural fibres (cotton or linen); in winter, a light sweatshirt for the evening; in summer, lightweight clothing, long and made of natural fibres, desert turban.
In the northern mountains, light clothes for the day, sunglasses, sun hat, desert boots or sandals; in winter, sweater and jacket for the evening; in summer, sweatshirt and light jacket for the evening.
On the coast of the Indian Ocean (see Mogadishu), all year round, light clothing of natural fibre, a light sweatshirt for the evening, a scarf for the breeze; sunglasses, sun hat. In the south-central part, you can bring a light raincoat or umbrella between March and November (especially between April and August).
For the reef, snorkeling equipment, water shoes or rubber soled shoes.
For women, it is best to avoid shorts and miniskirts.