Map from Google - Rotterdam
In Rotterdam, the second largest city of the Netherlands, the climate is sub-oceanic, humid and rainy, influenced by the North Sea but also by the Atlantic Ocean, so it has cold (but not freezing) winters and quite cool summers.
The average temperature
in January is 3.5 °C, while in July it's 17.5 °C.
Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Rotterdam
is relatively abundant, about 850 millimetres per year, but above all it is common and distributed throughout the year; however the rainiest season is autumn, the least rainy season is spring. Rainfall often occurs in the form of short showers or drizzle.
Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Rotterdam
blows frequently, and can be intense, especially from November to March.
, from December to February, is cold: the daytime temperatures are on average a few degrees above freezing, and at night they stay around freezing; wind and humidity often exacerbate the feeling of cold.
However, different weather situations may occur.
When the westerlies blow, the temperatures can be quite mild, and can reach 10/12 °C, but there may be wind and rain.
On the contrary, when the city is affected by cold air masses from Russia, the temperature drops below freezing, for longer or shorter periods, even during the day. During the most intense and prolonged cold waves, rivers and canals can freeze. Generally the temperature does not drop below -13 °C; more rarely, it can drop further, to around -20 °C in the coldest winters.
Snowfalls in Rotterdam are quite frequent, though usually not abundant, and occur in the form of sleet or light snow, however sometimes the snow can accumulate on the ground, and last for many days, if it occurs during cold waves.
, from March to May, is initially cold, with possible snowfalls still in March, and then it gradually becomes milder in April and May, although some cold days, with highs around 10 °C, can occur also in May, especially in the first half of the month. However, April and May are, albeit slightly, the least rainy and cloudy months.
Typically, in the second half of May the temperatures become permanently acceptable, and there can be the first pleasantly warm days, with highs around 25 °C or even above.
, from June to August, is mild, and the flow of Atlantic fronts does not cease even in this season; the wind blows constantly from the sea, and even rainfall is quite frequent. However, there are pleasant periods, in which the daytime temperatures are between 20 and 25 °C, but also cooler periods, in which even they remain below 20 °C. At night it can be a little cold, and the temperature can drop below 10 °C even in July and August. Sometimes there can be hot days, in which the temperature can reach 28/30 °C, but this may not occur for a whole month.
, from September to November, is initially pleasant, ie in the first half of September, then it gradually becomes more cold, dull, wet and windy. The first night frosts usually occur in November, but sometimes also in October.
The amount of sunshine
in Rotterdam is not high: the sun rarely shines from October to February, while it goes a bit better from May to August, when the weather is variable, and between a disturbance and the other the sun can come out. There are on average 7 hours of sunshine per day in May and June, and 6 in July and August.
For swimming, the North Sea
is very cool or cold even in summer: the temperature reaches 16 °C in July and 17 °C in August and September.
Here are the average sea temperatures.
Sea temperature - Rotterdam
When to go
The best time
to visit Rotterdam runs from mid-May to mid-September, being the mildest of the year. July and August are the warmest months; however, it's better to bring a sweatshirt or sweater, a light jacket and an umbrella, for cool and rainy days.