Map from Google - Kyrgyzstan

In Kyrgyzstan, a mountainous country of central Asia, the climate is continental, with cold winters, often frosty, and warm and sunny summers, sometimes scorching at low altitudes, but cooler in the mountains. Precipitation is moderate in the west, while the east-central is arid, and also desert to lower elevations. From the vast deserts of neighbouring countries, winds bringing dust, sometimes stormy, can blow.
Kyrgyzstan is crossed by several mountain ranges: in the north-west the Fergana Mountains, in the south-west the foothills of the Pamir and Alay, and in the centre and east the various branches of the Tien Shan, which reaches its highest point in Jengish Chokusu (formerly Pik Pobedy), on the border with China, 7,439 metres high. At high altitudes, above 4,000 metres (13,100 ft), there are vast glaciers that feed rivers, which flow in deep valleys between the mountains.
In Kyrgyzstan there are no flat areas, and at most there are areas where the altitude is between 500 and 1,000 metres (1,600/3,300 feet).

The capital Bishkek is located in the north, in the valley of the river Chuy, at an altitude ranging between 650 and 950 metres (2,100/3,100 feet). Here the climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers, in which the days can be torrid, often around 35/36 °C (95/97 °F), but with dry air and lively breezes in the afternoon.
Here are the average temperatures of Bishkek.
Average temperatures - Bishkek
BishkekJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
BishkekJFMAMJJASOND
Min (°C)-9-70611151816115-1-5
Max (°C)331018232831302517105
Min (°F)161932435259646152413023
Max (°F)373750647382888677635041

Precipitation is moderate, the annual total being around 450 millimetres (17.5 inches), with a summer minimum (when only rare downpours occur to interrupt the sunny days), and a maximum in spring, between March and May. Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Bishkek
BishkekJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
BishkekJFMAMJJASONDY
Prec. (mm)253045756535201015454530440
Prec.(in)11.21.832.61.40.80.40.61.81.81.217.3
Days66998432367668

From the neighbouring mountains located south of the city, in all seasons a warm dry wind may blow, while there are no obstacles to cold air masses coming from the north, so that there may be intense cold waves. Therefore, the average temperature of the coldest month, about -3 °C (27 °F) in January, is just the result of very different situations: periods with temperatures at night around freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and mild days with highs around 10/15 °C (50/59 °F), alternate with colder periods when the temperatures are near the average, but also with glacial periods when the minima plunge around -25 °C (-13 °F), and the maxima remain around -15 °C (5 °F). The records in Bishkek are respectable: -34 °C (-29 °F) the lowest, and even 43 °C (109 °F) the highest!

Bishkek

Osh, Kyrgyzstan's second largest city, is located in the south-west at 1,000 metres (3,300 feet) of altitude, and Jalal-Abad, the third, at no great distance, at 750 metres (2,450 ft). In these cities the temperature is similar to that of Bishkek, with slight differences due to the altitude, but the more southern location and especially the presence of mountain ranges to the north, make them less vulnerable to cold spells, however, glacial days are possible here as well.
In the vast mountainous areas, winters get really cold. In Naryn, at 2,000 metres (6,500 feet) above sea level, the average in January is -15.5 °C (4 °F), while that of July rises to 17 °C (63 °F). Here are the average temperatures.
Average temperatures - Naryn
NarynJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
NarynJFMAMJJASOND
Min (°C)-21-18-715810950-8-17
Max (°C)-10-62131721242420131-7
Min (°F)-601934414650484132181
Max (°F)142136556370757568553419

Throughout the year, 300 mm (12 in) of rain or snow fall, so the climate is still arid, but the pattern is different from the western cities, because there is a relative minimum in winter and a maximum in late spring, with some rain possible even in summer, reflecting the fact that the central-eastern part of Kyrgyzstan is slightly affected by the Asian monsoon. Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Naryn
NarynJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
NarynJFMAMJJASONDY
Prec. (mm)101220324860362117151210293
Prec.(in)0.40.50.81.31.92.41.40.80.70.60.50.411.5
Days9910111210975879106

Karakol is located at 1,600 metres (5,250 feet) on the shores of Lake Issyk Kul, which is large enough to create a micro-climate, slightly milder than areas of equal altitude of the country. Winter is still cold, with an average in January of -10 °C (14 °F), though the lake never freezes because it is salty, while summers are pleasantly warm, with highs around 23/25 °C (73/77 °F) and cool nights: local people bathe in the lake.

Lake Issyk Kul

When to go

To visit the major cities of Kyrgyzstan and the lowlands, the best times are spring and autumn, especially the periods April-May, and September-October. Considering the climate variability and the diurnal temperature range, it must be said that in April and October it can be cold at night, and in May and September it can already get hot during the day: you can choose then the intermediate periods (mid-April to mid-May, and mid-September to mid-October).
To visit high altitude areas, the summer is preferable, from May to September at around 2,000 metres (6,500 feet), and from June to August above 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), given that it's the only period in which the temperature rises above freezing.

What to pack

In winter: in Bishkek and the major cities, under a thousand metres (3,300 feet), warm clothes, sweater, down jacket, hat, scarf, gloves; some lighter clothes for the mild days, scarf for the wind. For the Tien Shan and the high mountains, cold weather clothing, synthetic thermal long underwear, fleece, parka, wind jacket, warm boots.
In summer: in Bishkek and the major cities, under a thousand metres (3,300 feet), light clothes, sun hat, scarf for the wind, a sweater for the evening. For the mountains, at intermediate altitudes, light clothes for the day, sun hat, sweatshirt and light jacket for the evening, hiking shoes; above 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), sweater and jacket for the evening; above 4,000 metres (13,000 ft), down jacket, hat, gloves, scarf.
For women, it is best to avoid shorts and miniskirts.