Map from Google - Greenland

In Greenland, a former Danish territory, the climate is arctic along the north-central coasts (zone 1 on the map), where the temperatures of the warmest months are around freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and subarctic in the south-central coasts (zone 2 on the map), where the average temperatures in the summer months are above freezing, but still below 10 °C (50 °F). It goes without saying that the largest settlements are located in this area, which has a relatively milder climate. Finally, there is the vast inland area (zone 3 on the map), where the temperature remains around or below freezing even in the summer months.

Climates in Greenland

Greenland is a very large island and it's very extended in latitude, since the southern tip is located at the latitude of Oslo (Norway), while the northernmost tip is the land closest to the North Pole, which is about 700 km (400 mi) away.
Much of the island is covered by an ice sheet, called Inlandsis, formed over thousands of years, and even 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) thick in the interior; the ice sheet is not stationary, but it moves slowly, sliding towards the sea by gravity. The ice flows to the sea through the fjords, giving birth to icebergs which then drift away.
In the centre and north, typically the coldest month is February, and sometimes even March; March is usually as cold as January or even colder: this happens because at these latitude in winter the sun never rises, and even when it rises above the horizon in March, it initially remains very low and fails to warm the soil, also because the latter is covered by snow and therefore it reflects most of the solar rays. It goes without saying that in April in the centre and north we still have to expect very low temperatures, that is, several degrees below freezing.
Greenland is a windy island. The winds descend from the perennial ice cap and then reach the fjords and the sea are called katabatic. Strong winds blowing when the air is very cold are dangerous for human beings, and can lead to frostbite. In addition, there are the cold winds that come directly from the North Pole, but also the southern and westerly winds, which blow especially along the southern coast, and are caused by the clash between polar and mild air masses, the latter transported along the Atlantic by the Gulf Stream. There are, however, also sheltered bays and fjords where the wind blows more rarely.
Precipitation in Greenland is scarce but quite frequent, therefore it occurs in the form of light snow in the central and northern areas, while it becomes more abundant along the coasts located south of the Arctic Circle, but also at high altitudes on the ice sheet, where it always occurs in the form of snow. Precipitation is most abundant in the coast of the far south-east, where it even exceeds 2,000 millimetres (80 inches) per year.
The amount of sunshine is never very good, but in spring and summer the sun can come out, also because of the long days, so sunscreen, lip balm and sunglasses can be useful for the vast snow-covered areas.
During the long winter, nights can be illuminated by the spectacular northern lights (aurora borealis).

Aurora borealis

Along the coasts, the climate is cold, but the winter temperatures are not so low, at least in the centre and south. However, the summer is very cool, if not cold, as the sea remains cold, also because it continually receives the supply of ice coming from the interior. The main towns are located on the west coast, because in the east there's a cold current that carries floating ice on the sea, at least in the winter, and up tp a quite low latitude. These cities are often located in sheltered bays, but it's enough to go offshore to find a cold wind, and temperatures a few degrees above freezing, even in summer.
Now, let's take a look at the climate of some coastal towns and settlements.
In the remote research station of Nord, located at a latitude of 81 degrees North, in the north-eastern coast, the average temperature goes from -30 °C (-22 °F) in March to 3.5 °C (38.5 °F) in July. During winter the temperature can plunge to -50 °C (-58 °F), while in summer it can reach at most 13/14 °C (55/57 °F). The average daily temperature exceeds freezing only in July and August, while in June it's around 0 °C (32 °F). We are in the arctic climate region, where it can snow even in summer.
In Qaanaaq (Thule), the second most northerly town in the world, located on the north-west coast, at a distance of just 1,300 km (800 mi) from the North Pole, the average temperature goes from -25 °C (-13 °F) in February to 5 °C (41 °F) in July; the coldest record is -43 °C (-45 °F), the highest is 20 °C (68 °F). In return, the area in which this city is located is not very windy. Precipitation amounts to only 120 millimetres (4.7 inches) per year. Sometimes the temperature can drop below freezing even in summer. Here the polar night is long, and it runs from late October to mid-February, although for a few weeks in October and February, when the sun still doesn't go above the horizon, there's a glimmer of light around noon; on the other hand, the sun never sets for a very long time, from late April to late August.
Further south, in Upernavik, a town of a thousand inhabitants, located on the west coast at a latitude of 72 ° N, the average temperature goes from -20 °C (-4 °F) in March to 5 °C (41 °F) in July and August. Precipitation amounts to 230 mm (9 in) per year.
Further south, in Ilulissat (or Jakobshavn in Danish), still on the west coast, just north of the Arctic Circle, the day lasts 24 hours in June, nearly 24 hours in May and July, and 20 hours in August. On the contrary, in December and January darkness dominates, and the sun rises above the horizon in mid-January. In April, at this point the days are long, even though the temperature is still below freezing. Here the average temperature goes from -14 °C (7 °F) in February, to 8.5 °C (47.5 °F) in July. The thaw occurs in the month of May, while the temperature returns below freezing in late September or early October.
Here are the average temperatures of Ilulissat.
Average temperatures - Ilulissat
Min (°C)-17-18-17-13-3354-1-6-11-14
Max (°C)-10-10-9-449121050-4-8
Min (°F)1019273741393021127
Max (°F)141416253948545041322518

Precipitation is scarce, around 255 mm (10 in) per year, which means that snowfalls in the long winter are usually light, maybe long-lasting but not abundant. Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Ilulissat
Prec. (mm)151515201525303035252515255

The sea at Ilulissat is always very cold; in winter sometimes it freezes completely, at other times it can be partially clear of ice, as in summer. In fact, Ilulissat is famous for the constant presence of icebergs along the coast, which come from the nearby fjord, and make it a tourist attraction.
Sea temperature - Ilulissat
Sea (°C)-1-1-1-101232110
Sea (°F)303030303234363736343432


The towns located not directly on the coast but within the fjords, are colder in winter, but also a little warmer in summer. For example, in Kangerlussuaq (Sondrestrom), located south of Ilulissat, about 130 km (80 mi) away from the coast, the average temperature goes from -20 °C (-4 °F) in February, to 10 °C (50 °F) in July. Here, the lowest record of the last twenty years is a respectable -46 °C (-51 °F), while the warmest is 23 °C (73 °F).
Nuuk (Godthåb), the capital, is located 500 km (300 mi) south of Ilulissat; here the average temperature goes from -8 °C (18 °F) in February to 7 °C (44.5 °F) in July. The lowest record is not so prohibitive, being -28 °C (-18 °F), while the highest is 22 °C (72 °F).
Average temperatures - Nuuk
Min (°C)-10-11-11-6-21441-3-6-9
Max (°C)-5-5-5-13710961-1-4
Min (°F)141212212834393934272116
Max (°F)232323303745504843343025

Precipitation in Nuuk becomes more abundant, around 750 mm (29.5 in) per year, with a maximum in summer. Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Nuuk
Prec. (mm)404550455560858590657555755

Even in Nuuk the sea is always very cold, but it freezes more rarely, although sometimes this can happen, in particular in February and March.
Sea temperature - Nuuk
Sea (°C)000113443210
Sea (°F)323232343437393937363432

Continuing to the south, in Paamiut (formerly Frederikshab), the average temperature goes from -7 °C (19 °F) in January to 7 °C (44.5 °F) in July; precipitation reaches 880 mm (34.5 in) per year, which means that during the long winter, a significant amounts of snow accumulates.
Further south, in Ivittuut the average goes from -7 °C (19 °F) in January to 9 °C (48 °F) in July; this south-western area is the warmest of Greenland, at least in the summer, as is also evidenced by the highest temperature of the entire Greenland, which has been recorded here, even 30 °C (86 °F). The average daily temperature is around freezing in April (therefore, a month earlier than in Ilulissat), and it goes back around freezing in the second half of October.
Average temperatures - Ivittuut
Min (°C)-11-11-8-403552-1-5-8
Max (°C)-4-3038121312840-2
Min (°F)121218253237414136302318
Max (°F)252732374654555446393228

Here, however, precipitation is abundant, since it reaches 1,260 mm (49.5 in) per year, with a maximum in autumn, but with frequent snowfall for many months a year, as well as rainfall in summer. Here is the average precipitation.
Average precipitation - Ivittuut
Prec. (mm)901158070909080100165165140751260

In the southern tip, near Cape Farewell (see Prins Christian Sund), the climate becomes almost oceanic: the average temperature goes from -4 °C (25 °F) in January and February, to 6 °C (43 °F) in July and August. In return, precipitation is abundant, since it exceeds 2,200 mm (87 in) per year. Snowfalls are abundant, but also the summer rains. However, in the extreme south the temperature can exceed freezing and it can rain even in winter. The wind is frequent and often stormy. However, this area is occupied by fjords and mountainous islands, and it's virtually uninhabited.
On the east coast there are fewer settlements, because as we said a cold marine current carries ice floes on the sea, but also because the coastline is more rugged. However, in this coast, at the 65th parallel, we find Tasiilaq (Ammassalik), where the average temperature goes from -7 °C (19 °F) in the January-March period, to 6 °C (43 °F) in July and August. Here the average temperature exceeds freezing from June to September. The lowest recorded temperature is -26 °C (-15 °F), the highest is 20 °C (68 °F). Precipitation, quite abundant, amounts to 850 mm (33.5 in), so here there may be heavy snow accumulations. In summer, there's no shortage of rain.

In the interior, covered by the ice cap, the summer temperature remains around freezing or below, and it decreases with altitude. In summer, it usually snows above 300 metres (1,000 feet) above sea level. The coldest areas are the central ones, where the ice cap is thicker: for instance in the point called Eismitte, at the centre of the island, about 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) above sea level, an expedition in 1930 installed a weather station, which recorded an average temperature of -47 °C (-53 °F) in February, and of -12 °C (10 °F) in July. The lowest recorded temperature was -65 °C (-85 °F), the highest was -3 °C (27 °F).

Summit Camp
In the more recent scientific station of Summit Camp, located near the highest point of the ice plateau, where the altitude reaches 3,200 metres (10,500 ft), the average temperature goes from -42 °C (-44 °F) in January to -13 °C (9 °F) in July; the coldest record so far is -67 °C (-88.5 °F), while the highest has been 3.6 °C (38.5 °F).
Average temperatures - Summit Camp
Summit CampJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Min (°C)-48-46-45-40-30-19-15-21-29-39-42-48
Max (°C)-36-38-32-29-19-11-11-14-22-28-28-36
Min (°F)-54-51-49-40-22-25-6-20-38-44-54
Max (°F)-33-36-26-20-212127-8-18-18-33

In the eastern part of Greenland there is also a mountain range, the Watkins Mountains, which exceed the altitude of the plateau, and reach their highest point in Gunnbjörn Fjeld, 3,694 metres (12,119 feet) high. This and the other mountain peaks are climbed preferably in July and August, when weather conditions are usually better.

When to go

The best time to visit Greenland is the summer, from June to August. In June, temperatures are a bit lower, and this could be a disadvantage for the coldest areas, but in return it's possible to see the midnight sun in a wider area, moreover rain and snow are a bit rarer. July is the warmest month, but rainfall starts to become a bit more frequent, at least on the south-west coast, and even more so in August. In the regions having an arctic climate, and in particular along the northern coast, where what matters most is the temperature, you may prefer July and August, and in particular July, because it's the least cold.
Even in midsummer you must be equipped for the freezing cold, if you plan to visit the inland plateau and the mountains; in the northern coast the temperature is around freezing, therefore you will need to wear winter clothes; otherwise for central and southern coastal towns, some heavy clothes are also recommended, a sweater and a jacket for the evening and for excursions (eg boat trips where you will be exposed to cold winds), and a raincoat for rainy days. Hiking boots with non-slip soles are also recommended, because paved roads are a rarity, and you can easily end up in snow-covered areas. During the day sometimes it can almost get hot, and therefore you must be ready to take off the heaviest clothes.

What to pack

In winter: cold weather clothing, synthetic thermal long underwear, fleece, down-filled parka with insulated hood, wind jacket in Goretex, gloves, warm boots, scarf, fleece socks.

In summer: in the major cities: warm clothes, jacket, sweater, shirt and t-shirt for mild days; boots or hiking shoes, raincoat or umbrella. For the interior plateau, and for mountains and offshore excursions: fleece, down jacket, wind jacket, hat, gloves.